Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV
Number of pages: 244 s.
“Cognitive mosaic of human personality” was written for a wider circle of readers, not only psychologists, who are probably the closest to the questions of personality. Mosaic in this case means completing individual pieces into the image of such complex phenomenon as the human personality. We are trying to complete the knowledge in the studied field by theoretical elaboration of individual personality phenomena and by experimental activities. Thus, the book includes both, theory and research results.
The central topic of the book is personality construct “need for structure”, which profiles individual parts of the collective monograph. Presented are basic principles of this construct, but also many research findings of Slovak as well as foreign origin (Ivan Sarmány-Schuller). Second chapter focuses on such important and currently almost privileged questions of decision-making and related phenomena of rational and intuitive decision-making and thinking, as well as on historical questions of knowledge, cognitive fallacies and biases (Imrich Ruisel). Chapter bearing the name “Mosaics of optimism” (Matúš Grežo and Ivan Sarmány-Schuller) is a theoretic elaboration of several concepts of optimism, from naive to real, from explanatory to dispositional style, from optimism of managers to the optimism of financial analysts. The fourth chapter focuses on another part of personality that is significantly related to decision-making and preferred way of information processing, in this case it is the relationship between cognitive styles and religiosity, including religious fundamentalism (Lucia Adamovová). The next three chapters describe in more detail the theory of schemas (Jana Kordačová), either schemas and their place in the cognitive structuring of knowledge (Chapter 5), newer approaches to the questions of structuring human cognition (Chapter 6), or types of schemas (physical, self, gender, cultural, etc.) that are presented in Chapter 7, called “Forms of cognitive structuring and schema attributes”. Chapter 8 deals with the problem of personality characteristic in relation to the personality concept “need for structure”, especially in relation to counterfactual thinking, wisdom and self-efficacy (Alexandra Prokopčáková). Rarely studied questions related to the neurocognitive approach to the study of the need for cognitive structure emerge in Chapter 9 (Mária Túnyiová). The following chapter (Chapter 10) is dedicated to seldom studied questions of the need for structure in the context of intercultural psychology, where such phenomena as, e.g., ambiguity tolerance, analytical vs. intuitive cognitive strategies are compared on a theoretical level (Ivan Brezina). Questions of coping also belong to the mosaic of personality, in this case reactive and proactive (coping) in the sensitive age of adolescence, these form the final chapter (Chapter 11), which presents research findings of gender differences (Emília Ficková).