Institute of Experimental

Centre of Social and Psychological Sciences, S.A.Sc.

Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
"I never did anything by accident, nor did any of my inventions
come by accident; they came by work."           T. A. Edison


Wisdom in the Context of Personality: Problems, Facts, Questions

Imrich Ruisel, Zdena Ruiselová (Eds.)

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 226 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-34-3


Psychology defines epistemic and pragmatic approaches to wisdom. The pragmatic approach is characterized by emphasizing performance and management, the epistemic focuses on failures in achieving more difficult goals and on insufficient mental regulation. Its orientation is towards the search for harmony between security and doubt, mainly by reflective assessment with focus on attitudes to knowledge. Pragmatic theories emphasize life knowledge according to ethical perspectives – wisdom leads to a superior life with regard to self and others. The aforementioned theoretical frames are also the book’s problematic spheres. The authors focused on the regulation role of wisdom within personality variables, but also in the context of human cognition. The first part of the publication is more theoretical in nature: it perceives wisdom as integrator of affects and cognitions, deals with the relationship of wisdom and thinking (Ruisel), with a psychologically integrated human being as the prototype of personal wisdom (Sollárová), with neurophysiological context of wisdom (Brezina) and the relationship of wisdom and emotional schemes (Kordačová). The second part of the book presents results of authors’ own researches, focusing mainly on wisdom in relation to personality and generally within cognitions. The chapters report about gender differences in counterfactuals and adolescent wisdom (Ficková), about the empirical study of wisdom and counterfactual thinking in the context of personality (Ruiselová, Prokopčáková), about the effect of cognitive style and decision making on wisdom (Sarmány-Schuller). The conclusive, extensive chapter of D. Kováč presents an analysis of ontogenetic aspects of wisdom and wise ageing. The whole book perceives wisdom as an active regulator of human behavior in a broader context of personality and cognitive variables.

Intersections of cognition

Ruisel Imrich

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 521 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-33-6


The monograph is trying to provide a continuous review of the development and forming of human cognition, especially in regard to historical, psychological-philosophical, anthropological, social and cultural aspects of this phenomenon. This problem is relatively broad, as there is an uncontrollable amount of significant stimuli that regulate and activate human cognition. The author thus aimed only at a fragmentary survey and focused his choice on individual personalities, who significantly contributed to the increase in human cognition, and some continual activities in which whole generations of scholars, scientists, laymen, but also nobles, kings and emperors participated. The evolution of human cognition has always been strongly international. This practically never ending process has always been dominated by large social groups – nations, nationalities and minorities shaped by various cultures and civilizations. The author is convinced that history is the key to understanding the future. The study of history leads to our constant feeling of humbleness in front of geniuses and gifted individuals, in front of their effort and creative insights. More often than not, history indicates that current findings only repeat ancient knowledge and experience. The author follows the concept of researchers from different fields of human cognition being prompted to accept that cognition starts gradually, from simple beginnings, and gradually grows into sometimes unimaginable dimensions.

Decision-making and judgment: In view of psychology and economy I.

Bačová Viera (Ed.)

Year of publication: 2010
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 207 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-30-5


The team consisting of economists and psychologists presents in this monograph a study of selected fields of judgment and decision-making (JDM). V. Bačová focuses on the research tradition of JDM: the study of decision-making (as choice of alternatives) and the study of judgment (as a cognitive process). Both traditions combine psychological and economical viewpoints. E. Drobná presents theories and empirical researches of dual processes as a model of “two minds in one brain”. The idea that the mind can consist of two systems of judgment, where each has a different built and characteristics, is currently one of the most attractive explanations for the workings of human mind. V. Baláž offers a review of theories of economic decisions from the neoclassical perspective, dominated by the model of “economic man”, and presents the perspective of behavioral sciences, especially the prospect theory of Kahneman and Tversky, which re-introduced psychological aspects of decisions to economic thought. V. Čavojová presents four main general approaches that introduce emotions into decision making. Her conclusion is that emotions in decision making can be considered as adaptive mechanism that can guide the most vital (be it economical) decisions in human lives. M. Šinský presents his taxonomy of tendencies to decision biases (as he calls deviations from the rational model), as theories of neoclassic finances underestimate the usage of heuristics and systematic tendencies to decision biases from the (presumed) rational decision-making. This monograph was written especially for students of undergraduate and graduate study, researchers in the field of psychology, economy and cognitive sciences.

Cognition in historical context

Imrich Ruisel

Year of publication: 2010
Publisher: Slovak Academic Press
Number of pages: 430 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-28-2


The monograph is trying to indicate a few problems that human cognition is facing since the beginnings of human history until today. We have to believe that human cognition will be a bright beacon on this road as it was the case in the darkest times of human history. Although only small ambers were sometimes alive, their flames burnt bright repeatedly and only cognition illuminated the dark corners of human existence. The book offers a review of human cognition, especially in the historical, psychological-philosophical, anthropological, social and cultural context. This is a complex process with many variables, which are far from being under control. The author inclines to such research, which demands from researchers in various fields of humaniities to accept that cognition starts gradually, spreads from simple beginnings and grows to sometimes unimaginable dimensions.

Human Cognitive Portrait

Imrich Ruisel, Alexandra Prokopčáková (Eds.)

Year of publication: 2010
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 366 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-29-9


The monograph “Human Cognitive Portrait” was written with the results obtained by the Centre of Excellence of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in the Research of Cognitions (CEVKOG). The monograph consists of fifteen chapters that focus on basic methodological aspects of cognition construction, cognitive structures, intelligence, creativity, cognitions in clinical context, emotions in cognitions, behavioral-situational concept of social intelligence, individual values as well as relations of cognitions and wisdom, emotional intelligence, and coping. In addition to existential cognitions in the cognitive functioning of humans, personality and gender aspects of wisdom in adolescents were also studied. Cultural-social differences were analyzed from the cognitive point of view and the intelligence point of view between German, Czech and Slovak adolescents, and also the effect of biased argumentation in the approach of European citizens to social care. The book outlined a portrait of a creative and intelligent personality in family constellation. The focus was on the relation between practical and academic intelligence, especially in the Roma population. The application possibility of emotional schemas in cognitive and in positive psychology has been discussed. The monograph offers a survey of theories and research results on the role of counterfactual thinking in forming the human cognitive portrait and the relation of this type of thinking and negative emotions. The reader will find even a discussion on implicit theories of wisdom among shamans of the Amazon. Individual authors have obviously based their work on different fields of psychology. Some focused more on the theoretical-methodological questions of cognitive psychology. Others focused rather on the analysis of questions put by society. However, a joint effort was to at least contribute a small share to highlighting the outlines of human cognitive portrait as an individual subject, who observes the world, anticipates, forms hypotheses, makes plans, conducts experiments, makes conclusions and by means of obtained knowledge forms the world around him or actively or passively adapts to its workings.

Creativity in everyday life and in research

Jurčová Marta

Year of publication: 2009
Publisher: IRIS, Bratislava
Number of pages: 265 p.
ISBN: 978-80-89256-42-6


This book shows creativity in the light of empirical research, roads and paths of research into the character of creativity. The survey presents findings and numerous phenomena that are part of the psychology of creativity. It offers a framework for understanding its layers, factors and influences. Presented are numerous researches and scientific facts that have contributed to our present understanding of the complicated character of creativity and creator and the harmony of all its components in their mutual relations, interactions within the system. This book introduces creativity not only as the peak of human spirit, but also its everyday presentations in the activities of ordinary people. An independent part is dedicated to the possibilities of stimulation, development and cultivation of creativity in everyday life. This part focuses especially on educators, social workers and managers, but can be of interest for psychologists and students of psychology as well as for broader readership, who ask what creativity is and how they could use that information in their professional or personal life.

Counterfactual thinking and personality

Ruiselová Zdena a kolektív

Year of publication: 2009
Publisher: Slovak Academic Press, Bratislava
Number of pages: 170 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-27-5


Counterfactual thinking means to think about „What if...“ and to contemplate alternatives other than the one which happened in reality. This book offers an image of the present state of research of this complex, complicated and insufficiently studied phenomenon; from theoretical contemplations on the process of counterfactual thinking itself, through its incorporation into the broader context of hypothetical thinking and decision making, to the survey of authors’ research activities and results.

Social processes and personality 2008 – Conference proceedings (CD-ROM)

Golecká Lenka, Gurňáková Jitka, Ruisel Imrich (Eds.)

Year of publication: 2009
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 870 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-26-8


Reviewed proceedings from the XI. International conference Social processes and personality 2008. The conference was held under the patronage of the Institute of Experimental Psychology SASc. in KC Academia in Stará Lesná on 15 – 17 September 2008. The central topic of the conference was Personality and coping processes, complemented by partial themes Theory, methodology and psychodiagnostics; Social processes and personality in development; Cognitions, wisdom and personality; Quality of life and health; Personality, profession, society. Proceedings contain full texts of conference presentations.

Attachment and religiosity

Adamovová Lucia, Halama Peter

Year of publication: 2009
Publisher: Slovak Academic Press, Bratislava
Number of pages: 101 p.
ISBN: 978-80-8095-057-6


The book focuses on the religion and religious behavior through the framework of attachment theory. The first part of the book deals with the theory of attachment and its sources in childhood as well as with its application in the area of adult functioning, especially in relationships. The book also includes a chapter concerning the review of the methods used for assessment of attachment styles. The second part of the book links the attachment theory with religiosity. The fourth chapter explores the possibility of the God to act as an attachment figure. Other two chapters present the theoretical concepts and research findings in the area of attachment and religiosity with special focus on religious fundamentalism and religious conversion. In the book, the authors integrate the existing knowledge with their original research findings on the relationship between attachment styles and religious fundamentalism and the process of religious conversion.

Present trends in psychology: Searching for positivism alternatives – 2. revised and expanded version

Bačová Viera

Year of publication: 2009
Publisher: VEDA, Bratislava
Number of pages: 281 p.
ISBN: 978-80-224-1068-7


This book is a survey of new trends in psychology that are not available in current college textbooks. Simultaneously, basic questions come to the surface: how psychology views man of the present – it abandons the man – machine analogy; focuses not only on terms of “conventional” psychology, but introduces new models to view man in broader philosophical-sociological-linguistic concepts.
The main asset of this book lies in the comprehensive explanation of trends which have significantly influenced and still influence present development in psychology as a form of post-modern thinking and cultural allegiance. The author presents not only such trends as etogenics, social constructivism, psychological study of the language, discursion analysis, critical psychology, feministic psychology, and psychology in the works of M. Foucault, but also her own research and studies, attempting to offer a practical implementation of research processes and thinking of present trends in psychology.
The monograph is the second, revised and expanded, edition of a publication by the same title, published in 2000.

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