Institute of Experimental
Psychology

Centre of Social and Psychological Sciences, S.A.Sc.

Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
+421-2-54775625
"I never did anything by accident, nor did any of my inventions
come by accident; they came by work."           T. A. Edison

Publications

AGING INGENIOUSLY

Damián Kováč

Year of publication: 2013
Publisher: VEDA, Bratislava
Number of pages: 180 p.
ISBN: 978-80-224-1280-3

Abstract:

This book will satisfy not only psychologists, physicians, teachers, social workers, priests, etc., but also other persons 50+. Its wider mission is to weaken the extremely negative image of aging in the particular fields of science, but also in the public opinion. Although aging gradually leads to various dysfunctions and increased morbidity, it also involves some gains in personality and behavior. In addition to the classical approaches to aging, individual chapters focus on novel perceptions of wisdom and emotional life of the aging, mainly within marriage and family. The writing style is lively, often almost narrative; the cultivated language of science is interwoven by numerous images, author’s commentaries and quotations of great personalities of human history. Aging ingeniously implies tuning the quality of life in regard of the gains and losses brought upon by aging; the book offers quite a number of serious recommendations. Tune your life when you still have the time!



Decision-making and judgment V. (Social influences in decision-making)

Radomír Masaryk (Ed.)

Year of publication: 2013
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV
Number of pages: 205 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-46-6

Abstract:

The book introduces three directions of our thinking: 1. Finding relevant variables for the research problem and analyze them by means of experiments (findings in this direction of thinking are presented mainly by L. Kostovičová and K. Dudeková, who focus on accountability, responsibility and self-reflection and by J. Bašnáková and her methodological approach), 2. Qualitative method approach to the study of decision-making (R. Masaryk offers a review of possible approaches and reflects the pilot study that focused on the functioning of an autonomous institution), and 3. Finding cultural factors that affect individual decision-making (I. Brezina).



Decision-making and judgment III.: Aspects, phenomena, applications

Bačová Viera(Ed.)

Year of publication: 2012
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 261 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-37-4

Abstract:

This book is a loose sequel to the monographs “Decision-making and judgment I.: In view of psychology and economy” and “Decision-making and judgment II: Fields and concepts”. Three chapters continue the study and develop the classic theories of decision-making. They focus on simple vs. complex choice – chapter by V. Bačová, new approaches in the development of prospect theory - chapter by K. Dudeková, and possibilities for qualitative study of risky choice – chapter by E. Drobná. Following two chapters – the first by M. Stríženec and the second by H. Harenčárová – focus on intuitive and un/conscious thinking in decision-making. The monograph also includes two empirical studies. M. Šinský conducted an experimental study of the problem of perceiving sunk costs in financial decision-making of economic subjects, R. Hanák focused on the expertise in decision-making, he was particularly interested in how experts, HR officers, come to a consensus when using different recruitment methods. R. Masaryk and M. Petrjanošová apply the problem of decision-making to the context of health in their chapter. Several chapters form a comprehensive presentation of a focused problem with a deep insight. Some chapters deal with very similar questions of decision-making, but they are presented from different points of view, they are approached in light of different theories and methodological approaches, which lead to a more complex understanding of the decision-making processes. The monograph is intended for students of the master and doctoral study programs, and for researchers in psychology, economy and cognitive sciences.



Social processes and personality 2012 – Conference proceedings (CD-ROM)

Peter Halama, Róbert Hanák, Radomír Masaryk (Eds.)

Year of publication: 2012
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV
Number of pages: 476 p.
ISBN: 978–80–88910–40–4

Abstract:

Reviewed proceedings from the XI. International conference Social processes and personality 2008. The conference was held under the patronage of the Institute of Experimental Psychology SASc. in Congress Centre Kúpele Nový Smokovec on 17 – 19 September 2012. Proceedings contain full texts of conference presentations.



Introduction to naturalistic decision-making

Gurňáková Jitka a kol.

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV
Number of pages: 209 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-35-0

Abstract:

The presented monograph is the outcome of the grant VEGA 2/0095/10 "Moral aspects of effective self-regulation and decision-making in situations of emotional stress" solved at the Institute of Experimental Psychology SAS in the years 2010-2013. The authors of the individual chapters are members of the grant research team - Lucia Adamovová, Lenka Čičmanová, Jitka Gurňáková, Peter Halama and Ivan Kamhalová. The introductory part of the book is devoted to the origin, the basic starting points, limits and areas of naturalistic decision-making research. The next section provides more detailed description of each model of naturalistic decision-making - from Rasmussen decision ladder, through the Klein model of decision-making based on previous experience (RPD) to models involving uncertainty or meta-cognitions. Later, the specific procedures and methods of naturalistic decision-making research are outlined, followed by an overview of studies on the impact of individual personality characteristics and levels of expertise on the decision-making quality in professionals, the impact of emotions and emotional self-regulation skills for the quality of decision-making. On the fact that decision-making in natural conditions is an integral part of the whole range of different cognitive processes, focus chapters on macro-cognitions within the individual and team decision-making, whereas special attention was paid to the ability of creating meaning (sense-making). The last two chapters represent the practice of naturalistic decision-making research in the area of two different professions - for health care providers and members of the armed forces - that is where there are often fulfilled the essential features of naturalistic decision-making in professionals - dynamic, constantly changing environment, ill-defined problems, difficult to access or even lack of information, high costs, a significant risk rate and time pressure.



Decision-making and judgment II: Fields and concepts

Bačová Viera (Ed.)

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 187 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-36-7

Abstract:

The chapter Strategic decision-making by E. Letovancová presents a summary of current approaches and researches of strategic decision-making. The author chose the following paradigms as dominant in her chapter: rationality, politics and power and the social area. Key concept of her theory is effectiveness of strategic decision-making. L. Kostovičová in her chapter Bayesian judgment presents the history and present of the study of Bayesian judgment. Two competing approaches that try to explain the influence of the external presentation of the Bayesian judgment task are introduced in detail – the theory of ecological rationality and the theory of nested sets. M. Stríženec in his chapter History, applications and assessment of the concept “naturalistic decision-making” focuses on naturalistic decision-making, its basic concept and further development (macro-cognitions, expertize, ambiguity) and methodological procedures and practical applications. In the chapter Classic and ecological rationality in decision-making: argument for heuristics, V. Bačová presents classic (rational-logical) normative models of decision-making, where mathematical-statistic-logical processes are the norm for the assessment of the “correct” decision-making process. On the other hand, concepts of ecological rationality perceive decision-making as rational when it is adapted to the environment and when this form of decision-making effectively achieves the desired goals in this environment. In the chapter Nature vs. nurture: Influence of genetic, biological, social and psychological factors on the economic risk tolerance, V. Baláž introduces a survey of studies on the influence of heredity on economic behavior and their key results about the economic risk tolerance. He provides a comparison of the effect of heredity with other factors that influence behavior and he summarizes the most prominent findings. The book is a sequel to the monograph Decision-making and judgment: In view of psychology and economy I. This book is aimed for graduate and postgraduate students, researchers in psychology, economy and cognitive sciences.



Institute of Experimental Psychology: Concise Results to 2010

Kováč D.

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 55 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-31-2

Abstract:

The incentive for this little work came from the Presidium of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the iniciator of the project under the name “History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences”. This publication is an attempt to present a wider image of the workings of the Institute of Experimental Psychology SASc. throughout its 58 years of existence. As tradition puts it, the one who does not remember the history, he might repeat the same mistakes with more or less problems; historia magistra vitae.



Understanding mental states in the context of cognitive development of children

Čavojová Vladimíra, Ballová Mikušková Eva, Belovičová Zuzana (Eds.)

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 311 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-32-9

Abstract:

Thinking about motives, feelings and ideas and about the resulting behavior of other people forms a part of our everyday lives and without this skill our social functioning would be impossible. The aim of the presented book is to contribute theories to the discussion on the nature of this skill, commonly described as the theory of mind, its relations to emotional aspects and behavioral strategies in the development of older schoolchildren. The book consists of eleven chapters and can be theoretically divided into two parts. The chapters in the first part define the understanding of mind, they study the differences in social cognitions between people and animals, the evolution of the understanding of mind from birth to adulthood, factors that influence the individual differences in the evolution of the understanding of mind and this part is concluded by an outline of methods used in the study of understanding mind in children and adults. The second part introduces related constructs, especially empathy, pro-social behavior, social competences and social understanding, moral reasoning and language. This monograph was written within the project VEGA 1/0541/09 and the final chapter summarizes the results obtained in the project’s research.



Wisdom in the Context of Personality: Problems, Facts, Questions

Imrich Ruisel, Zdena Ruiselová (Eds.)

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 226 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-34-3

Abstract:

Psychology defines epistemic and pragmatic approaches to wisdom. The pragmatic approach is characterized by emphasizing performance and management, the epistemic focuses on failures in achieving more difficult goals and on insufficient mental regulation. Its orientation is towards the search for harmony between security and doubt, mainly by reflective assessment with focus on attitudes to knowledge. Pragmatic theories emphasize life knowledge according to ethical perspectives – wisdom leads to a superior life with regard to self and others. The aforementioned theoretical frames are also the book’s problematic spheres. The authors focused on the regulation role of wisdom within personality variables, but also in the context of human cognition. The first part of the publication is more theoretical in nature: it perceives wisdom as integrator of affects and cognitions, deals with the relationship of wisdom and thinking (Ruisel), with a psychologically integrated human being as the prototype of personal wisdom (Sollárová), with neurophysiological context of wisdom (Brezina) and the relationship of wisdom and emotional schemes (Kordačová). The second part of the book presents results of authors’ own researches, focusing mainly on wisdom in relation to personality and generally within cognitions. The chapters report about gender differences in counterfactuals and adolescent wisdom (Ficková), about the empirical study of wisdom and counterfactual thinking in the context of personality (Ruiselová, Prokopčáková), about the effect of cognitive style and decision making on wisdom (Sarmány-Schuller). The conclusive, extensive chapter of D. Kováč presents an analysis of ontogenetic aspects of wisdom and wise ageing. The whole book perceives wisdom as an active regulator of human behavior in a broader context of personality and cognitive variables.



Intersections of cognition

Ruisel Imrich

Year of publication: 2011
Publisher: Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Number of pages: 521 p.
ISBN: 978-80-88910-33-6

Abstract:

The monograph is trying to provide a continuous review of the development and forming of human cognition, especially in regard to historical, psychological-philosophical, anthropological, social and cultural aspects of this phenomenon. This problem is relatively broad, as there is an uncontrollable amount of significant stimuli that regulate and activate human cognition. The author thus aimed only at a fragmentary survey and focused his choice on individual personalities, who significantly contributed to the increase in human cognition, and some continual activities in which whole generations of scholars, scientists, laymen, but also nobles, kings and emperors participated. The evolution of human cognition has always been strongly international. This practically never ending process has always been dominated by large social groups – nations, nationalities and minorities shaped by various cultures and civilizations. The author is convinced that history is the key to understanding the future. The study of history leads to our constant feeling of humbleness in front of geniuses and gifted individuals, in front of their effort and creative insights. More often than not, history indicates that current findings only repeat ancient knowledge and experience. The author follows the concept of researchers from different fields of human cognition being prompted to accept that cognition starts gradually, from simple beginnings, and gradually grows into sometimes unimaginable dimensions.



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